8th Grade Chapter Study Guides

Unit 1; Chemical Building Blocks
Study Guide for Ch. 1; Introduction to Physical Science (Know by 9-7-09)



1.1; What is Physical Science?
Science
Observing
Inferring
Predicting
Chemistry
Physics
Astronomy
1.2; Scientific inquiry
Scientific inquiry
Hypothesis
Parameter
Manipulated variable
Responding variable
Controlled experiment
Data
Communicating
Model
Scientific theory
Scientific law
1.3; Measurement
SI
Weight
Mass
Volume
Meniscus
Density
Celsius scale
Kelvin scale
Absolute zero
1.4; Mathematics and Science
Estimate
Accuracy
Reproducibility
Significant figures
Precision


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1.5; Graphs in Science
Graph
Horizontal axis
Vertical axis
Origin
Coordinate
Data point
Line of best fit
Linear graph
Slope
Nonlinear graph
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;


*Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations… Students should develop their own questions and perform investigations…
Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.
Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.
Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.
Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this principle
in interpreting graphs constructed from data.
Construct appropriate graphs from data and describe relationships between variables.
Apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression,
given the two remaining terms (including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force =
pressure × area, volume = area × height).
Distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data


Unit 1; Chemical Building Blocks
Study Guide for Ch. 2; The Nature of Matter
(Know by 9-14-09)





2.1; Describing Matter
Matter
Substance
Physical property
Chemical property
Element
Atom
Chemical bond
Molecule
Compound
Chemical formula
Mixture
Heterogeneous mixture
Homogeneous mixture
Solution
2.2; Changes in Matter
Physical change
Chemical change
Law of Conservation of Matter
2.3; Energy and Matter
Energy
Temperature
Thermal energy
Endothermic change
Exothermic change
Chemical energy
Electromagnetic energy
Electrical energy
Electrode
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Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons…
The total energy & motion of the atoms in a substance determine its state of matter.
Unit 1; Chemical Building Blocks
Study Guide for Ch. 3; Solids, Liquids, & Gases (Know by 9-28-09)
3.1; States of Matter
Solid
Crystalline solid
Amorphous solid
Liquid
external image image009.pngFluid
Surface tension
Viscosity
Gas
3.2; Changes of State
Milting
Melting point
Freezing
Vaporization
Evaporation
Boiling
Boiling point
Condensation
Sublimation
3.3; The Behavior of Gases
Pressure
Directly proportional
Inversely proportional
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons…
The total energy & motion of the atoms in a substance determine its state of matter.
Compare the packing of solid, liquid and gas molecules.
Unit 1; Chemical Building Blocks
Study Guide for Ch. 4; Elements and the Periodic Table (Know by 10-12-09)




4.1; Introduction to Atoms
Atoms
Electron
Nucleus
Proton
Energy level
Neutron
Atomic number
Isotope
Mass number
4.2; Organizing the Elements
Atomic mass
Periodic table
Period
Group
Chemical symbol
4.3; Metals
Metal
Malleable
Ductile
Thermal conductivity
Electrical conductivity
Reactivity
Corrosion
Alkali metal
Alkaline Earth Metal
Transition metal
Particle accelerator
4.4; Nonmetals, Inert Gases, and Semimetals
Nonmetal
Diatomic molecule
Halogen
Inert gas
Semimetal
Semiconductor
4.5; Radioactive Elements
Radioactive decay
Radioactivity
Alpha particle
Beta Particle
Gamma radiation
Tracer
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Periodic Table
*Organization of the periodic table based on properties of the elements; reflects structure of atoms…
Use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds.
Know regions corresponding to metals, non-metals, metalloids, inert gases, etc.
Atomic number & what it means, atomic mass & what it means. Isotopes have a different # of neutrons.
Substances can be classified by properties like melting point, density, hardness, thermal and electrical conductivity.
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END OF UNIT 1
Unit 2; Chemical Interactions
Study Guide for Ch. 5; Atoms & Bonding
(Know by 11-2-09)


5.1; Atoms, Bonding, and the Periodic Table
Valence electron
external image image015.pngElectron dot diagram
Chemical bond
5.2; Ionic bonds
Ion
Polyatomic ion
Ionic bond
Ionic compound
Chemical formula
Subscript
Crystal
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5.3; Covalent Bonds
Covalent bond
Molecule
Double bond
Triple bond
Molecular compound
Polar bond
Nonpolar bond
5.4; Bonding in Metals
Alloy
Metallic bond
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;


Chemical Reactions
*Chemical reactions rearrange atoms into different combinations of molecules…
Reactant atoms & molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties.
Law of Conservation of Matter; in rxns the # of atoms and mass stays the same.
Rxns either release or absorb heat energy.
In physical changes (freezing, boiling) materials change form without chemically reacting.
Know how to determine if a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.



Unit 2; Chemical Interactions
Study Guide for Ch. 6; Chemical Reactions (Know by 11-23-09)
6.1; Observing Chemical Change
Matter
external image image021.pngChemistry
Physical property
Chemical property
Physical change
Chemical change
Reactants
Products
Precipitate
Endothermic reaction
Exothermic reaction
6.2; Describing Chemical Reactions
Chemical equation
Conservation of matter
Open system
Closed system
Coefficient
Synthesis reaction
Decomposition reaction
Replacement reaction
6.3; Controlling Chemical Reactions
Activation energy
Concentration
Catalysis
Enzyme
Inhibitor
6.4; Fire and Fire Safety
Combustion
Fuel


Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;


Chemical Reactions
*Chemical reactions rearrange atoms into different combinations of molecules…
Reactant atoms & molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties.
Law of Conservation of Matter; in rxns the # of atoms and mass stays the same.
Rxns either release or absorb heat energy.
In physical changes (freezing, boiling) materials change form without chemically reacting.
Know how to determine if a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.



Unit 2; Chemical Interactions
Study Guide for Ch. 7; Acids, Bases, & Solutions (Know by 12-7-09)
7.1; Understanding Solutions
Solution
Solvent
Solute
Colloid
Suspension
7.2; Concentration and Solubility
Dilute solution
Concentrated solution
external image image024.pngSolubility
Saturated solution
Unsaturated solution
Supersaturated solution
7.3; Describing Acids and Bases
Acid
Base
Corrosive
Indicator
7.4; Acids and Bases in Solution
Hydrogen ion (H+)
Hydroxide ion (OH--)
pH Scale
Neutral
Neutralization
Salt



Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Know how to determine if a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral.



Unit 2; Chemical Interactions
Study Guide for Ch. 8; Carbon Chemistry (Know by 12-18-09)



8.1; Properties of Carbon
Diamond
Graphite
Fullerene
Nanotube
8.2; Carbon Compounds
Organic compound
Hydrocarbon
Structural formula
Isomer
Saturated hydrocarbon
Unsaturated hydrocarbon
external image image027.pngSubstituted hydrocarbon
Hydroxyl group
Alcohol
Organic acid
Carboxyl group
Ester
Polymer
Monomer
8.3; Polymers and Composites
Protein
Amino acid
Plastic
Composite
8.4; Life with Carbon
Carbohydrate
Glucose
Complex carbohydrate
Starch
Cellulose
Lipid
Fatty acid
Cholesterol
Nucleic acid
DNA
RNA
Nucleotide


Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Chemistry underlies biology…
Carbon has a central role in life due to its ability to its ability to combine in many different ways.
Living organisms are made of molecules predominantly CHNOPS.
Living organisms have many different kinds of molecules, including small ones, such as water and salt, and very large ones, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and DNA.
END OF UNIT 2



Unit 3; Forces, Motion, and Energy
Study Guide for Ch. 9; Motion (Know by 1-18-10)
9.1; Describing Motion
Motion
Reference point
Distance
Displacement
external image image030.pngVector
9.2; Speed & Velocity
Speed
Average speed
Instantaneous speed
Velocity
Slope
9.3; Acceleration
Acceleration
9.4; Energy
Work
Energy
Kinetic energy
Potential energy
Gravitational potential energy
Elastic potential energy
Mechanical energy
Law of conservation of energy





Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position…
Position is defined by a standard reference point and set of reference directions.
Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time. Speed can vary.
Solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.
Velocity is described by both direction and speed.
Changes in velocity can be due to changes in speed, direction, or both.
Interpret graphs of position versus time and speed versus time for motion in a single direction.








Unit 3; Forces, Motion, and Energy
Study Guide for Ch. 10; Forces (Know by 2-22-10)
10.1; The Nature of Force
Force
Newton
Net force
Unbalanced forces
Balanced forces
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10.2; Friction, Gravity, and Elastic Forces
Friction
Static, sliding, rolling & fluid friction
Gravity
Mass
Weight
Free fall
Air resistance
Projectile
Compression
Tension
10.3; Newton’s First and Second Laws
Inertia
10.4; Newton’s Third Law
Momentum
Law of Conservation of Momentum



Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes


*Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity…
Force has both direction and magnitude.
Know the cumulative effect of two or more forces on an object at once.
Balanced forces produce no change in motion.
Identify forces acting on a static object; gravity, elastic forces due to tension/compression, and friction.
Unbalanced forces produce changes in velocity (direction or speed).
Greater masses require greater forces to achieve the same rate of change in motion.
Know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.





Unit 3; Forces, Motion, and Energy
Study Guide for Ch. 11; Forces in Fluids (Know by 3-15-10)
external image image036.pngexternal image image039.png11.1; Pressure
Pressure
Pascal
Fluid
Barometer
11.2; Floating and Sinking
Density
Buoyant force
Archimede’s Principle
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11.3; Pascal’s Principle
Pascal’s Principle
Hydraulic system
11.4; Bernoulli’s Principle
Bernoulli’s Principle
Lift
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;


*All objects experience buoyancy when in water…
D = m/v; calculate D (regular solid, irregular solid, liquid) from m and v measurements.
Buoyant force on an object in liquid is a force equal to the weight of the water it displaces.
Predict if an object with float or sink. Density of water is one.









END OF UNIT 3
Unit 4; Astronomy
Study Guide for Ch. 12; Earth, Moon, & Sun (Know by 4-5-10)
12.1;
external image image045.pngAstronomy
Axis
Rotation
Revolution
Orbit
Calendar
Solstice
Equinox
12.2; Gravity and Motion
Force
Gravity
Universal Law of Gravitation
Mass
Weight
Inertia
Newton’s First Law of Motion
12.3; Phases, Eclipses, and Tides
Phase
Eclipse
Solar eclipse
Umbra
Penumbra
Lunar eclipse
Tide
Spring tide
Neap tide
12.4; Earth’s Moon
Telescope
Maria
Crater
Meteoroid
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Structure and composition of the universe can be learned by studying stars, galaxies, &
their evolution.
Stars differ in size, temperature, and color. The sun is a star in the Milky Way.
Measure distance between the sun, stars, and Earth in AU and light years.





Unit 4; Astronomy
Study Guide for Ch. 13; Exploring Space (Know by 6-4-10)
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13.1; The Science of Rockets
Rocket
Thrust
Velocity
Orbital velocity
Escape velocity
13.2; The Space Program
Satellite
13.3; Exploring Space Today
Space Shuttle
Space program
Space probe
Rover
13.4; Using Space Science on Earth
Vacuum
Microgravity
Space spinoff
Remote sensing
Geostationary orbit
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Structure and composition of the universe can be learned by studying stars, galaxies, &
their evolution.



Unit 4; Astronomy
Study Guide for Ch. 14; The Solar System (Know by 4-26-10)



14.1; Observing the Solar System
Geocentric
Heliocentric
Ellipse
Moon
Astronomical unit
14.2; The Sun
Nuclear fusion
Core
Radiation zone
Convection zone
Photosphere
Chromosphere
Corona
Solar wind
Sunspot
Prominence
Solar flare
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14.3; The Inner Planets
Terrestrial planets
Greenhouse effect
14.4; The Outer Planets
Gas giant
Planetary ring
14.5; Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors
Comet
Coma
Nucleus
Kuiper belt
Oort cloud
Asteroid Asteroid belt
Meteoroid
Meteor
Meteorite


Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;



*Structure and composition of the universe can be learned by studying stars, galaxies, &
their evolution.
Galaxies are made of billions of stars and have different shapes.
The sun is a star in the Milky Way.
Stars are the source of light and the moon and planets shine due to reflected sunlight.
Know the appearance, composition, relative position, size, and motion of objects in the
solar system, including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids.
Unit 4; Astronomy
Study Guide for Ch. 15; Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe (Know by 3-24-10)



15.1; Telescopes
Electromagnetic Radiation
Visible light
Wavelenght
Spectrum
Optical telescope
Refracting telescope
Convex lens
Reflecting telescope
Radio telescope
Observatory
15.2; Characteristics of Stars
Constellation
Spectrograph
Apparent brightness
Absolute brightness
Light-year
Parallax
Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
Main sequence
15.3; Lives of Stars
Nebula
Protostar
Planetary nebula
White dwarf
Supernova
Neutron star
Pulsar
Black hole
15.4; Star Systems and Galaxies
Binary star
Eclipsing binary star
Open cluster
Globular cluster
Galaxy
Quasar
Spiral galaxy
Elliptical galaxy
Irregular galaxy
Universe
Scientific notation
15.5; The Expanding Universe
Big bang
Hubble’s Law
Cosmic background radiation
Solar nebula
Planetesimal
Dark matter
Dark energy


Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Structure and composition of the universe can be learned by studying stars, galaxies, &
their evolution.
Galaxies are made of billions of stars and have different shapes.
Stars differ in size, temperature, and color. The sun is a star in the Milky Way.
Measure distance between the sun, stars, and Earth in AU and light years.
Stars are the source of light and the moon and planets shine due to reflected sunlight.
Know the appearance, composition, relative position, size, and motion of objects in the solar system,
including planets, planetary satellites, comets, and asteroids.



END OF UNIT 4