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7th Grade Chapter Study Guides...




UNIT 1; LOOKING AT CELLS
Study Guide for Ch. 1; What is Life Science?
(Know by 8-31-09)
1.1; Thinking Like a Scientist
Science
Observing
Quantitative observation
Qualitative observation
Inferring
Predicting
Classifying
Making models
Scale model
1.2; The Study of Life
Life science
Biology
Organism
Development
Structure
Function
Complementary
1.3; Scientific Inquiry
Scientific inquiry
Hypothesis
Variable
Controlled experiment
Control
Manipulated variable
Responding variable
Operational definition
Data
Communicating
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Study Guide for Ch. 2; Using Light
(Know by 9-21-09)


2.1; Waves and the Electromagnetic Spectrum
Wave
Energy
Medium
Crest
Trough
Amplitude
Wavelength
Frequency
Hertz
Electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic spectrum
Visible light
2.2; Visible Light and Color
Transparent
Translucent
Opaque
Pigment
Secondary color
Complementary colors
Primary colors
2.3; Reflection and Refraction
Reflection
Law of reflection
Plane mirror
Image
Virtual image
Concave mirror
Optical axis
Focal point
Real image
Convex mirror
Refraction
Lens
Convex lens
Concave lens
2.4; Seeing Light
Cornea
Pupil
Iris
Retina
Rods
Cones
Nearsighted
Farsighted
2.5; Optical Tools
Camera
Telescope
Refracting telescope
Objective
Eyepiece
Reflecting telescope
Microscope
Electron microscope


Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Study Guide for Ch. 3; Cell Structure and Function
(Know by 10-5-09)
3.1; Discovering Cells
Cell
Cell theory
Unicellular
Multicellular
Tissue
Organ
Organ system
3.2; Looking Inside Cells
Organelle
Cell wall
Cytoskeleton
Cell membrane
Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosome
Golgi body
Chloroplast
Vacuole
Lysosome
3.3; Chemical Compounds in Cells
Element
Compound
Carbohydrate
Protein
Amino acid
Enzyme
Lipid
Nucleic acid
DNA
RNA
3.4; The Cell in its Environment
Selectively permeable
Diffusion
Osmosis
Passive transport
Active transport
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
What creatures are made of cells?
What is the function of the mitochondria, chloroplasts, and other cell organelles?
What is the difference between plant and animal cell structure?
Describe mitosis: pattern & process; draw and label each stage
Describe cell differentiation during development.
Study Guide for Ch. 4; Cell Processes and Energy
(Know by 10-19-09)
4.1; Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
Autotroph
Heterotroph
Pigment
Chlorophyll
Stomata
4.2; Respiration
Respiration
Fermentation
4.3; Cell Division
Cell cycle
Interphase
Replication
Mitosis
Chromosome
Cytokinesis
4.4; Cell Differentiation
Differentiation
Stem cell
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
END OF UNIT 1
UNIT 2; GENETICS AND EVOLUTION
Study Guide for Ch. 5; Genetics; The Science of Heredity
(Know by 11-2-09)
5.1; Mendel’s Work
Heredity
Trait
Genetics
Fertilization
Purebred
Gene
Alleles
Dominant allele
Recessive allele
Hybrid
5.2; Probability and Heredity
Probability
Punnett square
Phenotype
Genotype
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Codominance
5.3; The Cell and Inheritance
Sexual reproduction
Diploid
Meiosis
5.4; Genes, DNA, and Proteins
Messenger RNA
Transfer RNA
Mutation
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Genetics
*Cells contain genetic instructions that specify traits, may be modified by the environment
Sexual v. asexual reproduction
During sexual reproduction, half of the inherited traits are passed from each parent.
Inherited traits are determined by one or more genes, which are made of DNA.
Thousands of different genes, two copies of each one, may or may not be identical.
Study Guide for Ch. 6; Modern Genetics
(Know by 11-9-09)
6.1; Human Inheritance
Multiple alleles
Sex chromosome
Sex-linked gene
Carrier
6.2; Human Genetic Disorders
Genetic disorder
Pedigree
Karyotype
6.3; Advances in Genetics
Selective breeding
Inbreeding
Hybridization
Clone
Genetic engineering
Gene therapy
Genome
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Study Guide for Ch. 7; Changes Over Time
(Know by 11-16-09)
7.1; Darwin’s Theory
Species
Fossil
Adaptation
Evolution
Scientific theory
Natural selection
Variation
7.2; Evidence of Evolution
Comparative anatomy
Homologous structures
Mold
Cast
Petrified fossil
Trace fossil
Paleontologist
Gradualism
Punctuated equilibrium
7.3; Evolution of Species
Habitat
Extinct
7.4; Classifying Organisms
Classification
Taxonomy
Binomial nomenclature
Genus
Prokaryote
Eukaryote
7.5; Branching Trees
Branching tree diagram
Shared derived characteristic
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
What determines the great diversity of species?
Both and factors combine to direct and produce evolution.
Know how evolutionary adaptation of creatures to their environment happens by Natural Selection.
What is the evidence for evolution?
How are branching diagrams of classification made using shared characteristics?
What is the relationship between environmental change and extinction?
Study Guide for Ch. 8; Earth’s History
(Know by 12-14-09)
8.1; The Rock Cycle
Geology
Erosion
Uniformitarianism
Igneous rock
Sedimentary rock
Metamorphic rock
Rock cycle
Magma
Lava
8.2; The Relative Age of Rocks
Relative age
Absolute age
Law of superposition
Extrusion
Intrusion
Fault
Unconformity
Inclusion
Index fossil
8.3; Radiometric Dating
Atom
Element
Radioactive decay
Half-life
8.4; Movement of the Earth’s Plates
Plate
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Continental drift
8.5; The Geologic Time Scale
Geologic time scale
Era
Period
Invertebrate
Vertebrate
Amphibian
Reptile
Mass extinction
Mammal
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Earth History
*Geologic evidence helps us understand evolution
Uniformitarianism, slow processes have large cumulative effects.
Volcanism, asteroids and other catastrophic events influence pattern & process of evol
Rock cycle
Relative & absolute dating indicate a 4.6by geologic history with a 3by life history.
Continental drift through plate tectonics has influenced biogeography.
Explain significant episodes of evolution and extinction.
END OF UNIT 2
UNIT 3; STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN LIVING SYTEMS
Study Guide for Ch. 9; Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi
(Know by 1-11-09)
9.1; Viruses
Virus
Host
Parasite
Bacteriophage
Vaccine
9.2; Bacteria
Bacteria
Flagellum
Binary fission
Asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction
Conjugation
Endospore
Pasteurization
Decomposer
9.3; Protists
Protist
Protozoan
Pseudopod
Contractile vacuole
Cilia
Symbiosis
Mutualism
Algae
Spore
9.4; Fungi
Fungi
Hyphae
Fruiting body
Budding
Lichen
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
All creatures are made of cells.
What is mitosis; pattern & process?
What are the similarities and differences between sexual v. asexual reproduction?
Evolution determines the diversity of species.
How does the process of Natural Selection and adaptation apply to fungi, bacteria, & protists?
Both genetics and the environment combine to direct evolution
Give examples of the complementary nature of structure and function in these creatures.
What is the level of organization, from cells to whole organisms, in these creatures?
Study Guide for Ch. 10; Structure and Function of Plants
(Know by 1-25-09)
10.1; The Plant Kingdom
Cuticle
Vascular tissue
Zygote
Nonvascular plant
Vascular plant
Sporophyte
Gametophyte
10.2; Plants Without Seeds
Rhizoid
Frond
10.3; The Characteristics of Seed Plants
Phloem
Xylem
Pollen
Seed
Embryo
Cotyledon
Germination
10.4; Roots, Stems & Leaves
Root Cap
Cambium
Transpiration
10.5; Reproduction in Seed Plants
Gymnosperm
Cone
Ovule
Pollination
Angiosperm
Flower
Sepal
Petal
Stamen
Pistil
Ovary
Fruit
Monocot
Dicot
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Be able to compare and contrast a plant cell vs. an animal cell structure and function.
Complementary nature of structure and function in plants & animals.
How do angiosperm plants create pollen and what are the reproductive roles of ovules, seeds, and fruit.
What is the EM spectrum & how does visible light help provide the energy plants use to make glucose?
Know that visible light is a mixture of many wavelengths and photosynthesis uses only a narrow band.
Study Guide for Ch. 11; Structure and Function of Invertebrates
(Know by 2-22-09)


11.1; What is an Animal?
Anatomy
Physiology
Bilateral symmetry
Radial symmetry
Vertebrate
Invertebrate
Phylum
11.2; Sponges and Cnidarians
Larva
Cnidarian
Polyp
Medusa
11.3; Worms and Mollusks
Brain
Parasite
Host
Anus
Mollusk
Open circulatory system
Closed circulatory system
Gill
Gastropod
Radula
Bivalve
Cephalopod
11.4; Arthropods
Arthropod
Exoskeleton
Molting
Antenna
Crustacean
Arachnid
Abdomen
Metamorphosis
Insect
Thorax
Pupa
Nymph
11.5; Echinoderms
Echinoderm
Endoskeleton
Water vascular system
Tube feet


Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Know that heart contractions, blood pressure, and heart valves prevent back flow.
Know that there are levels of organization from cells to whole organisms.
Know that organ systems function due to cells, tissues, and organs working together.
Know that failure of one part affects the whole body system because they are all connected.
Study Guide for Ch. 12; Structure and Function of Vertebrates
(Know by 3-15-09)
12.1; What is a Vertebrate?
Chordate
Notochord
Vertebra
Ectotherm
Endotherm
12.2; Fishes
Fish
Cartilage
Swim bladder
12.3; Amphibians
Amphibian
Tadpole
Lung
Atrium
Ventricle
Habitat
12.4; Reptiles
Reptile
Kidney
Urine
Amniotic egg
12.5; Birds
Bird
Contour feather
Down feather
Crop
Gizzard
12.6; Mammals
Mammal
Mammary gland
Diaphragm
Monotreme
Marsupial
Gestation period
Placental
Placenta
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
Skeletal and muscular systems provide for movement.
Simple lenses in the eye are similar to telescopes, microscopes, cameras, etc.
Know the similarities between limb joints in vertebrates to simple machines made by humans.
Know that levers provide mechanical advantage in musculoskeletal systems.
Know that heart contractions, blood pressure, and heart valves prevent back flow.
END OF UNIT 3
UNIT 4; STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN THE HUMAN BODY
Study Guide for Ch. 13; Bones and Muscles
(Know by 3-29-09)


13.1; Organ Systems and Homeostasis
Muscle tissue
Nervous tissue
Connective tissue
Epithelial tissue
Organ system
Digestion
Kidney
Nephron
Urinary bladder
Pathogen
Antibody
Immunity
Homeostasis
Stress
13.2; The Skeletal System
Skeleton
Vertebrae
Joint
Ligament
Cartilage
Compact bone
Spongy bone
Marrow
Osteoporosis
13.3; The Muscular System
Involuntary muscle
Voluntary muscle
Skeletal muscle
Tendon
Striated muscle
Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle
13.4; Machines and the Body
Force
Work
Machine
Lever
Fulcrum
Effort force
Effort distance
Resistance force
Resistance distance
Mechanical advantage
Effort arm
Resistance arm


Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Know that form follows function in plants & animals.
Know there are levels of organization from cells to whole organisms.
Know that organ systems function due to complementary nature of cells, tissues, and organs.
Know that part failure affects the whole system.
Know that skeletal and muscular systems provide for movement.
Know that joint structure in humans compares to those found in simple machines.
Know that levers confer mechanical advantage in musculoskeletal systems
Study Guide for Ch. 14; Circulation and Respiration
(Know by 4-26-09)


14.1; The Body’s Transport System
Cardiovascular system
Heart
Atrium
Pacemaker
Ventricle
Valve
Artery
Capillary
Vein
Aorta
Coronary artery
Pulse
Diffusion
Pressure
Blood pressure
14.2; Blood and Lymph
Plasma
Red blood cell
Hemoglobin
White blood cell
Platelet
Shock
Lymphatic system
Lymph
Lymph node
14.3; The Respiratory System
Respiration
Mucus
Cilia
Pharynx
Trachea
Bronchi
Lungs
Alveoli
Diaphragm
Larynx
Vocal cords
14.4; Cardiovascular and Respiratory Diseases
Atherosclerosis
Heart attack
Hypertension
Stroke
Emphysema
Bronchitis
Asthma
Suffocation
Pneumonia


Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Know that form follows function in plants & animals.
Know there are levels of organization from cells to whole organisms.
Know that organ systems function due to complementary nature of cells, tissues, and organs.
Know that part failure affects the whole system.
Know the human circulatory system’s structure and function.
Know that heart contractions, blood pressure, and heart valves prevent back flow.
Study Guide for Ch. 15; The Nervous System
(Know by 5-24-09)


15.1; How the Nervous System Works
Stimulus
Response
Neuron
Nerve impulse
Dendrite
Axon
Nerve
Sensory neuron
Interneuron
Motor neuron
Synapse
15.2; Divisions of the Nervous System
Brain
Spinal cord
Cerebrum
Cerebellum
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
15.3; Sight and Hearing
Cornea
Pupil
Iris
Lens
Retina
Rods
Cones
Optic Nerve
Eardrum
Hammer
Anvil
Stirrup
Cochlea
Semicircular canal
15.4; Smell, Taste, and Touch
Taste bud
15.5; Alcohol and Other Drugs
Drug
Drug abuse
Tolerance
Addiction
Withdrawal
Depressant
Stimulant
Alcoholism


Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Know that form follows function in plants & animals.
Know there are levels of organization from cells to whole organisms.
Know that organ systems function due to complementary nature of cells, tissues, and organs.
Know that part failure affects the whole system.
Know that reflection and scattering of light is needed for the eye to work.
Realize the similarity between simple lenses and the eye, telescopes, microscopes, cameras, etc.
Remember the EM spectrum & visible light.
Remember that visible light is a mixture of many wavelengths. Retinal cells react differently for each.
Remember the difference between reflection, refraction, transmission, absorbtion of light energy.
Remember the angle of reflection = angle of refraction.
Remember that light travels in straight lines if it’s medium is constant.
Study Guide for Ch. 16; The Endocrine System and Reproduction
(Know by 5-31-09)
16.1; The Endocrine System
Endocrine gland
Hormone
Target cell
Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Negative feedback
16.2; The Male and Female Reproductive Systems
Egg
Sperm
Testis
Testosterone
Scrotum
Semen
Penis
Urethra
Ovary
Estrogen
Fallopian tube
Uterus
Vagina
Menstrual cycle
Follicle
Ovulation
Mentruation
16.3; Pregnancy, Development, and Birth
Embryo
Differentiation
Fetus
Amniotic sac
Placenta
Umbilical cord
Adolescence
Puberty
Essential Questions, Ideas & Processes;
*Know that form follows function in plants & animals.
Know there are levels of organization from cells to whole organisms.
Know that organ systems function due to complementary nature of cells, tissues, and organs.
Know that part failure affects the whole system.
Understand human reproduction including eggs, sperm, fertilization, and pregnancy.
Know the function of the umbilicus during pregnancy.
END OF UNIT 4